Health And Safety Management Systems 2 – Organizing



On completion of this element, candidates should be able to demonstrate understanding of the content through the application of knowledge to familiar and unfamiliar situations. In particular they should be able to:


  • Outline the health and safety roles and responsibilities of employers, managers, supervisors, workers and other relevant parties
  • Explain the concept of health and safety culture and its significance in the management of health and safety in an organisation
  • Outline the human factors which influence behaviour at work in a way that can affect health and safety
  • Explain how health and safety behaviour at work can be improved
  • Outline the need for emergency procedures and the arrangements for contacting emergency services
  • Outline the requirements for, and effective provision of, first aid in the



Identify SIX categories of persons who may be shown in the ‘organization’ section of a health and safety policy

document AND state their likely general or specific health and safety responsibilities.


  1. Directors and senior managers (responsible for setting policy, objectives and targets)


  1. Supervisors (responsible for checking day-to-day compliance with the policy)


  1. Safety advisers (responsible for giving advice during accident investigations and on compliance issues)


  1. Other specialist, such as an occupational nurse, chemical analyst and an electrician (responsible for giving specialist advice on particular health and safety issues)


  1. Safety representatives (responsible for representing employees during consultation meetings on health and safety issues with the employer)


  1. Employees (responsible for taking reasonable care of the health and safety of themselves and others who may be affected by their acts or omissions)


  1. Fire marshals (responsible for the safe evacuation of the building in an emergency)


  1. First aiders (responsible for administering first aid to injured persons)


For smaller organizations, some of the specialists mentioned above may well be employed on a consultancy basis.



Identify EIGHT indicators of management commitment to health and safety in the workplace.


  1. An important indicator of management commitment to health and safety in the workplace is the part played by a senior manager in signing the health and safety policy and then


  1. In ensuring that the policy is implemented and enforced;


  1. Sufficient resources such as finance, equipment;


  1. Provision of training are provided to support the implementation;


  1. Participation in monitoring procedures such as inspections and audits;


  1. Ensuring rapid implementation of any recommendations made from health and safety audits, meetings, investigations and/or initiatives;


  1. Personal observance of all safety rules such as wearing personal protective equipment and using pedestrian walkways;


  1. Participation in meetings of the safety committee and ensuring that health and safety is a regular agenda item in other meetings at all levels;


  1. Engaging in consultation with the workforce and welcoming employee feedback; and in


  1. Initiating and being personally involved in the delivery of health and safety training


This question is not usually well answered with many candidates identifying general safety management issues,

rather than individual managers‟ participation and behaviour.


Identify the criteria when selecting a contractor


Fortunately, a contractor who works well and meets the client‟s requirements in terms of the quality and

timeliness of the work is likely also to have a better than average health and safety performance.


Cost, of course, will have to be part of the judgement but may not provide any indication of which contractor is likely to give the best performance in health and safety terms.


In deciding which contractor should be chosen for a task, the following should be considered:


  • Do they have an adequate health and safety policy?
  • Can they demonstrate that the person responsible for the work is competent?
  • Can they demonstrate that competent safety advice will be available?
  • Do they monitor the level of accidents at their work site?
  • Do they have a system to assess the hazards of a job and implement appropriate control measures?
  • Will they produce a method statement, which sets out how they will deal with all significant risks?
  • Do they have guidance on health and safety arrangements and procedures to be followed?


  • Do they have effective monitoring arrangements?
  • Do they use trained and skilled staff who are qualified where appropriate? (Judgement will be required, as many construction workers have had little or no training except training on the )?
  • Can the company demonstrate that the employees or other workers used for the job have had the appropriate training and are properly experienced and, where appropriate, qualified?
  • Can they produce good references indicating satisfactory performance?


Outline how the organisations could work together to help ensure the workplace is safe and healthy. In order to ensure a safe and healthy workplace, the two organisations could:

  • Hold regular meetings of their managers;
  • Share information and risk assessments in order to avoid carrying out incompatible processes and activities and using incompatible substances;
  • Prepare and agree joint site rules for the workplace for example for assembly points and smoking areas;
  • Set up joint procedures for the management of visitors and contractors;
  • Agree on procedures for the management of traffic and the movement of vehicles;
  • Carry out joint inspections investigations and monitoring of the workplace;
  • Draw up joint emergency procedures and introduce fire drills for the work site as a whole; agree a policy for the management of waste and
  • Introduce joint safety committees and worker


Outline the issues that should be considered to achieve co-operation and co-ordination where employers share a workplace.


The issues that should be considered to achieve cooperation and coordination in a shared workplace include:


  • The need for all employers to share information on the hazards and risk associated with their particular activity;
  • The maintenance of access and egress to the workplace and the control of access by visitors and others;
  • The maintenance and cleanliness of shared and public areas;
  • The control of vehicle movement in the workplace;
  • The preparation of procedures for dealing with serious or imminent danger and emergencies;
  • The appointment of key personnel with specific responsibility for matters such as fire and first aid;
  • The provision of joint first aid facilities;
  • The allocation of responsibility for environmental controls such as heating, ventilation and air conditioning;
  • The maintenance and cleanliness of welfare facilities; and
  • The provision of security arrangements to deal with unwelcome visitors and/or


There would also be advantage in mentioning the there may be additional requirements under specific legislation in some countries e.g. the UK Management of Health, Safety and Welfare Regulations


Outline the general duties of designers, manufacturers and suppliers of articles and substances for use at work to ensure that they are safe and without risk to health.


Everyone in the supply chain, from the designer to the final installer, of articles of plant or equipment for use at work to:


  • Ensure that the article will be safe and without risk to health at all time when it is being set, used, cleaned or maintained
  • Carry out any necessary testing and examination to ensure that it will be safe, and
  • Provide adequate information about its safe setting, use, cleaning, maintenance, dismantling and




There is an obligation on designers or manufacturers to do any research necessary to prove safety in use.


Erectors or installers have special responsibilities to make sure, when handed over, that the plant or equipment is safe to use.


Similar duties are placed on manufacturers and suppliers of substances for use at work to ensure that the substance is safe when properly used, handled, processed, stored or transported, to provide adequate information and do any necessary research, testing or examining.


Where articles or substances are imported, the suppliers‟ obligations outlined above attach to the importer,

whether a separate importing business or the user personally.


Often items are obtained through hire purchase, leasing or other financing arrangements with the ownership of the items being vested with the financing organization.


Where the financing organization‟s only function is to provide the money to pay for the goods, the supplier‟s

obligations do not attach to them.



Outline the factors that might cause the safety culture within an organisation to decline/deteriorate. There are other indications of a poor health and safety culture or climate. These include:

  • A high sickness, ill-health and absentee rate amongst the workforce
  • The perception of a blame culture


  • High staff turnover leading to a loss of momentum in making health and safety improvements
  • No resources (in terms of budget, people or facilities) made available for the effective management of health and safety
  • A lack of compliance with relevant health and safety law and the safety rules and procedures of the organization
  • Poor selection procedures and management of contractors
  • Poor levels of communication, cooperation and control
  • A weak health and safety management structure
  • Either a lack or poor levels of health and safety competence
  • High insurance


Name the three spheres of influence related to ‘Safety Culture’ and explain how these three spheres of influence interact to ensure safety at work.


The three spheres of influence related to Safety Culture are:


  1. Organisation (the organisational controls from management)


  1. People (employees, contractors, sub-contractors, )


  1. Job (the tasks undertaken)


The three spheres if influences are known to work together to influence and foster a positive safety culture.


The organisation that ensure a safe place of work, information, training, instruction, and supervision, together with good risk controls sets the scene for employees to work in a secure and well motivated environment.


With this the people within the organisation and those connected to it should be competent and believe in the goals and preventative measures set by management, this forms a team of well-motivated employees.


The third sphere of influence is essential to complete the interrelation of the three spheres of influence. This is the on-going tasks / jobs, which if well organised and controlled by management with good communication, consultation and supervision will go a long way to ensuring and reinforcing a positive safety culture.


Define the term ‘Health and Safety Culture’.


The health and safety culture is related to attitudes and shared perceptions and the product of individual and group values as well as patterns of behaviours based on competence and confidence and on communications founded on mutual trust.



Identify ways in which the following can be achieved to help promote a positive health and safety culture in a workplace:


  • Control;


  • Co-operation;


  • Competence;





Part (a)


„Control„ might help to promote a positive health and safety culture in the workplace by for example:,


  • Appointing a senior person in the organisation to monitor the implementation of the health and safety policy;
  • Ensuring health and safety management procedures are in place;
  • Allocating responsibilities to specific personnel with managers taking full responsibility for controlling risk factors and reporting on performance;
  • Persuading employees to commit to clear health and safety objectives and setting health and safety standards;
  • Encouraging safety representatives to promote both the policy and the standards set;
  • Enforcing health and safety measures and taking disciplinary action where this is thought to be




Part (b)


„Co-operation‟ is concerned with:


  • Consultation with the employees and their representatives to motivate them and encourage their ownership of the control measures that have been put in place;
  • Involving the workforce in health and safety matters such as for example the completion of risk assessments and workplace inspections;
  • Sharing information with them regarding loss and other health and safety




Part (c)


„Competence‟ might be achieved by:


  • Assessing the skills necessary to ensure tasks are carried out safely by careful selection of the staff to be involved and identifying their training needs;


  • The provision of the necessary instruction, information and training to individuals with particular emphasis on that needed for high risk activities;
  • Making arrangements for employees to have access to advice and information sources to assist in increasing their


Part (d)


„Communication‟ can play an important part in promoting a positive health and safety culture by:


  • Clear and effective lines of communication established and any barriers removed;
  • If information is provided by tool box talks for example and
  • Health and safety is discussed regularly not only at official safety committee meetings but also at all team meetings;
  • If managers are seen to lead by example and to encourage two way communication


Outline ways in which health and safety culture can be improved


  • Clear and active senior management commitment to health and safety
  • The needs of production and health and safety properly balanced with pressure for production controlled against that for health and safety
  • Sufficient resources devoted to health and safety
  • Maximum partnership between management and the workforce based on a participative relationship between staff at all levels
  • Humanistic and non-authoritarian style of management
  • High senior and line management visibility on the shop floor
  • Frequent and informal communication between all levels
  • Quality training given to management and the workforce
  • Frequent and high-quality training for general safety and safe skills
  • High levels of job satisfaction
  • Ergonomic plant design and layouts
  • Workforce selected for their safety attitudes and


Identify the factors that could have contributed to the deterioration of the health and safety culture within the organisation.


Factors that could lead to a deterioration in a safety culture could include:


  • The lack of visible leadership
  • The lack of commitment at senior level
  • Changes in the management structure or roles
  • Changes in work patterns with the lack of effective communication prior to and during change
  • The fact that health and safety was not given the same priority as other objectives such as production or quality


  • The lack of consultation with and involvement of the workforce
  • The absence of management systems particularly where health and safety were concerned
  • A reduction in the workforce leading to work overload
  • A high staff turnover
  • External influences such as a downturn in the economy leading to job insecurity
  • The presence of a blame culture and/or peer pressure
  • Deterioration in the standard of welfare


A health and safety audit of an organisation has identified a general lack of compliance with procedures.


  1. Describe the possible reasons for procedures not being followed


  1. Outline the practical measures that could be taken to motivate employees to comply with health and safety


Part a)


There are a number of reasons why procedures may not be followed, including:


  • A negative or poor health and safety culture being in place – a why bother attitude as an example
  • Lack of training, awareness, supervision and/or information
  • Poor work planning, leading to high work pressure, and this pressure and the want to complete may force individuals not to comply
  • Lack of safety systems and barriers in place, if something is not properly in place or not properly maintained then people will not conform
  • Inadequate responses to previous incidents – could indicate a lack of management commitment and in

turn lead us along this „why bother‟ route again

  • Management based on one-way communications, people often see rules being meant to be broken –

telling is not always the best mode of communication – consultation is far more effective

  • Deficient co-ordination and responsibilities – leading to a lack of confusion as to who is responsible for what
  • Poor management of health and safety




Part b)


  • A clear and evident commitment from the most senior manager downwards,
  • Providing a climate for safety in which management‟s objectives and the need for appropriate standards are communicated
  • Constructive exchange of information at all levels is positively encouraged
  • Involvement of working in things like risk assessments,
  • An active health and safety committee with across the board representation
  • Health and safety being on the agenda of all departmental minutes
  • An analytical and imaginative approach identifying possible routes to human factor
  • Procedures and standards for all aspects of critical work and mechanisms for reviewing them


  • Effective monitoring systems to check the implementation of the procedures and standards
  • Incident investigation and the effective use of information drawn from such investigations
  • Adequate and effective supervision with the power to remedy deficiencies when



  1. Attitude is the tendency to behave in a particular way in a certain Attitudes are influenced by the prevailing health and safety culture within the organization, the commitment of the management, the experience of the individual and the influence of the peer group. Peer group pressure is a particularly important factor among young people and health and safety training must be designed with this in mind by using examples or case studies that are relevant to them. Behaviour may be changed by training, the formulation and enforcement of safety rules and meaningful consultation – attitude change often follows.
  2. Motivation is the driving force behind the way a person acts or the way in which people are stimulated to Involvement in the decision-making process in a meaningful way will improve motivation as will the use of incentive schemes. However, there are other important influences on motivation such as recognition and promotion opportunities, job security and job satisfaction.
  3. Self-interest, in all its forms, is a significant motivator and personal
  4. Perception is the way in which people interpret the environment or the way in which a person believes or understands a In health and safety, the perception of hazards is an important concern.


Many accidents occur because people do not perceive that there is a risk. There are many common examples of this, including the use of personal protective equipment (such as hard hats) and guards on drilling machines and the washing of hands before meals. It is important to understand that when perception leads to an increased health and safety risk, it is not always caused by a conscious decision of the individual concerned.


The stroboscopic effect caused by the rotation of a drill at certain speeds under fluorescent lighting will make the drill appear stationary.


It is a well-known phenomenon, especially among illusionists, that people will often see what they expect to see rather than reality. Routine or repetitive tasks will reduce attention levels leading to the possibility of accidents.


Other personal factors which can affect health and safety include physical stature, age, experience, health, hearing, intelligence, language, skills, level of competence and qualifications.


Finally, memory is an important personal factor since it is influenced by training and experience.


The efficiency of memory varies considerably between people and during the lifetime of an individual. The overall health of a person can affect memory as can personal crises.



  • Give the meaning of the term ‘perception’.


  • Outline ways in which workers’ perceptions of hazards in the workplace might be


Part (a),


An acceptable meaning of „perception‟ is required, such as the way that people interpret and make sense of presented information, for instance in relation to their surroundings.


Part (b),


Few candidates are able to outline more than one or two ways in which workers‟ perceptions of hazards in the

workplace might be improved. Most refer in general terms to

  • Motivation
  • The need to increase awareness in the individual by safety campaigns or posters
  • To increase knowledge by means of
  • That there was a need to identify, perhaps by the use of surveys, the reasons for workers‟ misperceptions

in order to increase awareness and challenge currently held views.

  • Other ways might include making hazards more obvious (for example, by the use of signs) and
  • Addressing environmental factors, such as lighting and noise, this might cause distraction or otherwise hinder the perceptual processes.


Identify ways in which managers can motivate employees to work safely.


Managers can motivate people in health and safety by a number of means, including:


  • A clear and evident commitment from the most senior manager downwards, which provides a climate for safety in which management‟s objectives and the need for appropriate standards are communicated and in which constructive exchange of information at all levels is positively encouraged
  • An analytical and imaginative approach identifying possible routes to human factor This may well require access to specialist advice
  • Procedures and standards for all aspects of critical work and mechanisms for reviewing them
  • Effective monitoring systems to check the implementation of the procedures and standards
  • Incident investigation and the effective use of information drawn from such investigations
  • Adequate and effective supervision with the power to remedy deficiencies when
  • Effective health and safety management system
  • Encouraging a positive health and safety culture
  • Ensuring adequate and competency of supervision
  • Insisting on effective incident reporting and analysis
  • Willing to learn from experience
  • Clearly visible health and safety leadership


  • A suitable team structures
  • Efficient communication systems and practices
  • Providing adequate staffing levels
  • Ensuring suitable work patterns are implemented
  • Recognition and reward


Outline ways of reducing the likelihood of human error in the workplace.


Exclusion strategies. Exclusion strategies make it impossible for the identified human error to occur. One such exclusion strategy is “mistake proofing.” For example, as consumers we cannot put a diesel fuel nozzle into an unleaded fuel tank‟s opening.


The pump‟s design makes it impossible to make that error.


Exclusion should be used in cases in which the potential human error can lead to catastrophic consequences.


Prevention strategies. Prevention strategies are the next tier down from exclusion and are used where the risk of human error is not as critical. In other words, the investment in making the human error impossible is not justified, so we just want to find a more economical approach to make it difficult to commit that identified human error.


Examples include the checklist a pilot completes before each flight and the surgical instrument count a nurse completes before and after a surgery.


Fail-safe strategies. Contrary to the name, fail-safe strategies are invoked when we want to mitigate the consequences of human error instead of trying to prevent it from occurring in the first place.


For example, stringent preventive maintenance efforts should be in place to ensure that equipment is calibrating

according to the manufacturer‟s specifications.


If the calibration goes beyond set alarm limits, and that condition is not acknowledged and corrected immediately, catastrophic consequences could result.


Competence improvements with more focused training and awareness ISIT (Information, Supervision, Instruction and Training)

Rest – reduce tiredness and fatigue


Health monitoring to determine levels prior to deteriorating to an unacceptable level Follow-up after incidents – establish why things went wrong – contributors and causes Engineering out areas where error may arise e.g. control conflicts



Some jobs require that work is carried out by a competent person.


Identify what checks could be made to assess whether a person is competent. Checks on the possession of competence by an individual may include:

  • Their qualifications and the possession of a specific licence such as for driving a heavy goods vehicle;
  • Employment history and experience;
  • Membership of a professional body;
  • Previous training
  • Success in any relevant examination and/or test; and
  • Any references and recommendations that might be




  • Identify FOUR types of health and safety information that might usefully be displayed on a notice board within a


  • Explain how the effectiveness of notice boards as a means of communicating health and safety information to the workforce can be


Part a)


  1. Health and safety policy


  1. Minutes of the health and safety committee meeting


  1. Accident / ill-health / absence statistics


  1. Good safety initiatives


  1. Safety alerts (bad practice identification)


  1. Safety awards


  1. Details of health and safety training events Part b)

The most common way in which written communication is used in the workplace is the notice board.


For a notice board to be effective, it needs to be well positioned within the workplace and there needs to be a regular review of the notices to ensure that they are up to date and relevant.


If there is a multi-lingual workforce it is beneficial and effective to have any notice board items written in the main languages to encourage the reading of such information, acceptance and compliance with requirements as necessary



Give reasons why it is important to use a variety of methods to communicate health and safety information in the workplace.


  • Consideration of the sort of information that needs to be communicated in the workplace and the different methods of presenting such information should be
  • People respond differently to different stimuli, and that variety prevents over-familiarisation with one method and helps to reinforce a
  • The need to overcome language barriers and the inability of some workers to read;
  • The need to motivate, stimulate interest and gain involvement and feedback;
  • The acceptance that different types of information require different methods of communication for example emergency signs;
  • That the policy of the organisation may require certain information to be in a specified format; and
  • That on occasions evidence that the message was given may need to be


Identify the barriers to effective verbal communication that may exist


There are numerous barriers to effective communication, these may include:


  • Language not understood- the language spoken by the trainer or supervisor not understood by the
  • Personal Factors – such as a dislike to the person giving the communication, may be related to a lack of trust or the uncertainty of the real reason for the communication (trust)
  • Background noise- due to background noises or other disturbances the verbal instructions is not understood by the employees
  • Technical explanations are not clearly understood
  • Use of jargon not being understood
  • Interference by Due to the wearing of PPE such as ear defender, hood etc the verbal communication can not be interpreted effectively
  • Stress – due to personal stress employees may be unable to concentrate on the communication being conveyed
  • Timing – if the timing is inappropriate persons may have their interest elsewhere – g. holding a meeting only minutes prior to a meal break
  • Distractions – these could involve on-going activities, noise, proximity of the public,



Explain the difference between consulting and informing workers on health and safety issues


Informing is considered to be a one way process e.g. providing workers with information on hazards and risk control measures. Consulting is a two-way process in which the employer for example listens and takes account of the views expressed by workers prior to making a final decision.



  • Give the meaning of the terms ‘error’ AND ‘violation’ AND give a practical example of


  • Outline factors that could contribute to human error in relation to:


  • The individual;


  • The tasks being undertaken;


(iv) The organisation.


(c) Explain ways in which the likelihood of human error can be reduced.




Part (a)


An ‟error‟ is an unintended action, for example where a familiar task is not carried out as planned such as

operating the wrong switch or control.


A „violation‟ however, is a deliberate deviation from an acceptable standard such as the intentional removal of a guard in order to speed up a process.


Part (b)


  • The factors relating to the individual:


  • Attitude and motivation;
  • Maturity
  • Mental maturity;
  • Aptitude;
  • Competence;
  • Physical capabilities;
  • Any sensory defect they may possess;
  • Perception of risks involved in the task being undertaken;
  • The possibility that they have language problems;
  • The effects of stress, fatigue and alcohol or substance


  • The factors relating to the tasks include:


  • The lack of correct tools,
  • Poorly maintained equipment
  • Equipment that had not been well designed resulting in ergonomic problems,
  • The setting of unrealistic target,
  • Tasks that were complex or conversely those that were repetitive and monotonous,
  • Systems of work that were not clear
  • Environmental conditions such as noise levels and unsatisfactory


  • The factors related to the organisation include:


  • A poor health and safety culture
  • A lack of obvious leadership on the part of management resulting in an unsatisfactory level of supervision and monitoring,
  • A lack of resources
  • A failure to complete risk assessments and introduce safe systems of work
  • A lack of consultation and communication with the workforce
  • A failure to provide adequate levels of training for


Part (c)


The ways in which the likelihood of human error might be reduced are related to the potential defects identified in the second part of the answer above and how they might be remedied including:


  • The introduction of effective procedures for the selection and recruitment of staff including pre- employment health screening and health surveillance;
  • The use of ergonomic principles in the design of tasks;
  • The setting of realistic targets
  • Introduction of job rotation and frequent breaks following consultation and communication with the involvement of the workforce;
  • Ensuring a high level of supervision and mentoring
  • Establishing clear lines of responsibility;
  • The introduction of procedures for the regular monitoring of health and safety standards with remedial action being taken whenever this was seen to be necessary


Outline how induction training programmes for new workers can help to reduce the likelihood of workplace accidents.


Such induction training for new workers may assist in reducing workplace accidents and incidents in a number of ways, including:


  • Making workers aware of the workplace hazards and risks
  • By introducing the new starts to related safe systems of work
  • By ensuring awareness in emergency preparedness procedures to be followed
  • Making them aware of restricted areas
  • By training them in the correct and safe use of tools and equipment and ensuring that they are conversant with their proper use
  • Ensuring that new starts are aware of the reporting procedures for mal-functioning equipment
  • Making them aware of incident and hazard reporting procedures
  • Making them aware of the sources of help available should further need arise
  • Such training will foster a positive attitude towards safety and safe working and may assist in countering any pressure put on them by peers and others


Please note that this question was not concerning the topic of induction training sessions.


Outline the topics that may typically be included on the agenda of a safety committee meeting.


A safety committee agenda would normally include subjects which are / were of concern to employees on various health and safety issues.


The agenda would be made up of suggestions and issues which may have been brought up by employees, contractors and others.


The agenda items that may be typically included are


  • The outcomes of any recent inspection by the enforcing authorities
  • The outcomes of any third party audits that relate to health, safety and environmental issues
  • Any recent accidents, incidents and near misses – reports and outcomes
  • Any problems arising from workplace inspections, g. Housekeeping, blocked fire exits etc.
  • Also areas such as the identification of unsafe acts, conditions and hazards that have been reported and perhaps not suitably
  • Other topics may include, stress at work, due to long hours, or environmental conditions, manual handling issues, worker dissatisfaction with welfare arrangements, food and catering contractors
  • Changes in legislation and their likely impact
  • Outcomes of risk assessment and safe working system reviews
  • Accident, incident, sickness, absence and ill health statistics,
  • Workplace inspection scheduled


GIVE SIX reasons why a health and safety committee may prove to be ineffective in practice


  • Lack of management commitment
  • No clear terms of reference
  • Unbalanced membership e. too many managers
  • Lack of respect to team members – workers to managers and vice versa
  • Poor leadership of the chair person
  • No access to relevant health and safety advice
  • No direction or no priorities being assigned
  • Inclusion of trivial topics or allowing topics to run on to put others out of time


Outline ways to help ensure the effectiveness of a safety committee.


  • Right number and mix of members
  • Authority to consider recommendations
  • Knowledge and expertise


  • Good communication lines – management to employees and vice versa
  • Formality mix – agenda, minutes, chair person
  • Part of meeting to be pro-active
  • Identified and agreed priorities
  • Limiting the input of individuals (not allowing one person to take over or hog a meeting


Outline the benefits to an organization of having a health and safety committee.


  • It allows a definite point of contact for allowing safety issues to be
  • Helps to keep management and workers informed of the company health and safety
  • If properly managed it will foster better employee / management relationships with regard to health and
  • It allows proper focus on the progress of achieving
  • Allows points to be raised in the presence of management without undue
  • Assists in the accurate communication of information from the committee to the
  • If demonstrates management commitment to health and
  • It should improve or at least maintain a positive safety



  • Identify THREE types of emergency in the workplace that may require the evacuation of


  • Explain why it is important to develop emergency procedures in the




Part (a)


Three types of emergency in the workplace that could lead to the need to evacuate workers could be:


  • Fire or explosion,
  • The accidental release of toxic chemicals or gases,
  • Transport incidents,
  • Bomb alerts or other terrorist activities,
  • Weather related emergencies and




Part (b)


The importance of developing procedures for the safe evacuation of workers in the event of an emergency could include:


  • The need to comply with legal requirements;
  • To be prepared for foreseeable emergencies;
  • To ensure the safety and protection of the workers including those dealing with the emergency
  • To assist the safe evacuation of persons including those with specific needs such as visitors and the disabled;
  • To provide information on the action to be taken, not only by workers but also by neighbours and others who might be affected by the emergencies such as in a shared or joint occupancy premises;
  • To allocate specific responsibilities to certain workers in the event of an evacuation being necessary;
  • To be able to mitigate the effects of adverse events and to restore the situation to normal; to ensure the procedures are made available to any relevant emergency services and
  • To ensure business


Identify FOUR types of emergency that would require an organisation to have an emergency procedure


  1. Fire


  1. Accident


  1. Chemical spillage


  1. Dangerous occurrence


  1. Security / Intruder alert


  1. Explosive device discovery


  1. Terrorist threat / nuisance calls



  • Identify TWO main functions of first-aid


  • Outline the factors to consider when making an assessment of first-aid provision in a


Part (a)


The main purpose of first aid is to control the life-endangering situation and prevent further injury.


For serious accidents, the main responsibility of those in the work area is to get professional help; ignorantly doing the wrong thing can cause further injury.


Part (b)


Typical examples of the equipment and facilities a first-aid room may contain are:


  • A sink with hot and cold running water;
  • Drinking water and disposable cups;
  • Soap and paper towels;
  • A store for first-aid materials;
  • Foot-operated refuse containers, lined with yellow, disposable clinical waste bags or a container suitable for the safe disposal of clinical waste;
  • An examination/medical couch with waterproof protection and clean pillows and blankets;
  • A chair;
  • A telephone or other communication equipment; and
  • A record book for recording incidents attended by a first-aider or appointed


Outline factors to be considered when carrying out an assessment of first-aid requirements in a workplace. The factors to be considered include, but are not limited to:

  • The number of trained first-aid personnel and first-aid facilities in relation to, for example, the size of the organisation;
  • The distribution and composition of the workforce including the special needs of workers such as trainees, young workers and the disabled;
  • The types of hazard and level of risk present;
  • The past history of accidents and their type, location and consequences;
  • The proximity of the workplace to emergency medical services;
  • The special needs of travelling, remote or lone workers such as the provision of personal first aid kits or mobile phones;
  • The possibility of shared provision on multi-occupancy sites;
  • The need to train the first aid personnel in special procedures; and
  • The ability to provide continued cover over different shifts and for sickness, leave and other

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